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Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL) Curriculum

Unit 1: Reading Self and Society
Unit 2: Reading History
Unit 3: Reading Science

In a randomized, controlled study funded by the U.S. Department of Education, students in the two-semester RAAL course made statistically significant gains in reading comprehension, grades, and standardized test scores and had significantly lower suspension rates in comparison with control students.

The experimental study followed ninth graders who were reading significantly below grade level. In addition, RAAL has been used successfully in ELD classes and with students reading at and above grade level.

Used in support of the Common Core standards, RAAL provides a literacy and engagement advantage for all students. Students learn to grapple with complex subject area texts, make meaning of them, and make arguments based on them. In each subject area unit, students learn how to use the discipline-specific features of texts, make content-worthy inquiries, build evidence-based arguments, and use subject-appropriate discourse in their speaking and writing.

Investigate sample RAAL materials: Unit 1 Lesson, Unit 2 Lesson, Unit 3 Lesson, RAAL Tables of Contents.


“In all my years of teaching, this is the only program I have been excited about. It doesn’t demean my kids, it works, and not just for a couple of kids.”

— Grade 9 academic literacy teacher and reading specialist

See related article > Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy feature about a RAAL classroom

Cynthia Greenleaf, Gina Hale, Irisa Charney-Sirott, Ruth Schoenbach
Trade paper and Binders, WestEd, 2013 and 2007
Pricing > See options per course, per unit, per piece

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