Research & Evidence

Research Tools

Studies of Reading Apprenticeship professional development have yielded a number of research tools in the fields of teacher professional development, adolescent literacy, and the integration of literacy and subject area instruction. These tools may be used with proper citation if no changes are made to their content. When a tool is copyrighted and changes to the content are desired, it is necessary to consult one of the copyright holders identified on the tool. The contact for WestEd is Cynthia Greenleaf, Joan Herman,, at CRESST/UCLA is the contact for The Regents of the University of California.


Teacher Surveys of Literacy Instructional Practices

Teacher surveys are designed to assess secondary teacher practice on six global constructs related to effective integration of literacy instruction with subject area instruction. The six constructs are further divided into sub-constructs reflecting aspects of the apprenticeship model—reading opportunities offered to students; the nature and degree of teacher modeling, guidance, and support; and student opportunities for practice with key reading and discourse routines, tools, strategies, and dispositions.

Six global constructs related to literacy practices are assessed by the survey:

  • history or science reading opportunities
  • collaboration
  • metacognitive inquiry
  • comprehension strategies instruction
  • a feature of instruction called “negotiating success”—a focus on designing and modifying instruction and assessment in response to student learning needs
  • teacher beliefs about reading, learning, and diversity
download history survey download biology survey

Student Opportunities to Learn Surveys

Student Opportunities to Learn surveys ask secondary students about classroom practices related to the integration of literacy and either history or biology and also include items related to students’ engagement, motivation, and perceptions of themselves as readers and learners.

Four key constructs related to learning opportunities are assessed by the survey:

  • class emphasis on reading in history/biology
  • integration of history/biology and literacy activity
  • persistence/motivation in class
  • self-efficacy, interests, and confidence
download history survey download biology survey

Integrated Learning Assessment (ILA) in History and Science

The Integrated Learning Assessment (ILA) measures secondary student engagement and use of metacognitive and comprehension-supporting routines that help students to become self-monitoring and self-governing readers of history or science texts. The ILA also measures student achievement in these subject areas and in literacy.

As a performance-based assessment, the ILA integrates CRESST’s work on model-based assessment and explanation tasks with Reading Apprenticeship’s curriculum-embedded reading assessment, the CERA. Students read a set of complex, grade-level history or science texts, describe their reading and thinking processes, answer a set of comprehension questions, and do some writing on a topic that integrates information from these texts into a coherent essay. Scoring is based on a rubric and attends to students’ comprehension and conceptual understanding, and to students’ literacy and historical or scientific thinking and discourse processes.

ILA research tools include subject-related assessments and scoring guidance: